Author – Padmaja Vangala
Sri Ganeshaya namaha
Sri Gurubhoy namaha
Sri Lakshmi Nrusimha Parabrahmane namaha
The festival of Luni-year
Ugadi is Samvastsaradi, a New Year and it is the first Hindu festival based on the lunar calendar. There are 12 months in the Gregorian calendar from January to December.
There are 13 months in the Hindu calendar, but Dhanurmasam overlaps with Margashirsha and Pushya months. Therefore Hindu Calendar is also calculated as 12 months from Chaitra to Phalguna.
Once in three years Purushotham Month, Adik Month, Mala Masa, an extra month occurs as the 14th Month and it may occur in any month. The first month in Hindu Calendar is called Chaitra, wherein Chitra Nakshatra occurs on Purnima tithi. This month is celebrated as Ugadi.
Ugadi is formerly Yugadi Yug+Adi which means the end of the previous age or era and the beginning of the New age or era with new hopes. According to Hindu mythology first yug is the Satya yug or Krutha Yug, Second is the Tryeta yug.
The third is Dwaparyug and the current is Kaliyug. Lord Brahma started his creation on Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. According to Bhagavat Puran in Satya yug the Demon Pralamba seized four Vedas and kept them under the ocean, then Brahma prayed to Lord Vishnu to get back the four Vedas.
Lord Vishnu incarnated as Matsya avatar and killed the demon in the region of ManuUttam and retrieved Vedas to Brahma on this Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. Kruthya Yug or Satya Yug started on Vaishaka Shukla Tritiya on Akshya Tritiya. In the Mahabharat period, the next day of Sankranti is celebrated as the new year. So Yugadi varies from Age to Age. Chaitra month falls in the spring season.
There are six seasons divided into twelve months of two months duration each in a year. Spring season, Vasant Ruthu falls during Chaitra and Vaishaka Months. Summer season, Grushma Ruthu in Jyestha and Ashada month. Monsoon season, Varsha Ruthu for Shravan and Bhadrapada month. Autumn season, Sharad Ruthu comes on Ashwin and Kartik month.
Pre-winter season Hemant Ruthu in Margashirsha and Pushya month. Winter season, Shishir Ruthu for Magha and Phalguna month. Ugadi comes in the Spring season of Chaitra and Vaishaka months and is said to be Madhumasam and Vasant Masam. Vasant is called Vishnu and also the son of Brahma, brother of Kamadeva.
You May Also Like: The Power of Rudraksha
In Bhagavat Geeta Lord Krishna said :
“ Masanam Margashirshoham ruthchaam kusumakara:”
He says Margashirsha month and Spring season are most important in materialistic and spiritual life.
In the early hours of Ugadi important ritual is taking Abhyanga snan which means applying scented oil like Badam or Navaratan from toe to hair and adding neem flowers, neem leaves, turmeric in hot water, and taking a shower bath with scented bath powder and shampoo. Wear new clothes, decorate the main door with Mango and neem leaves, perform pooja, visit the temple, take blessings of elders, greet family and friends, recite or listen to Panchanga, a new year Hindu Calender. The Hindu Calendar is based on Astrology calculated on the lunisolar cycle of stars and planets. It is called Amavasyant and Purnimant. Sun transit from one Zodiac sign to another sign is called Purnimant. Moon complete its cycle from Amavasya tithi to Amavasya known as Amavasyant.
Ugadi is further calculated on Chandra Nadi and Surya Nadi. Chandra Nadi is based on last Thursday of Shukla Paksha and Surya Nadi is based on last Thursday of Krishna Paksha. Monday, Wednesday and Friday are Chandra Nadi days. Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday are Surya Nadi days.
Astrologers ascertain the position of Saturn and Jupiter with their benefic and malefic results. In the Spring season, two Navaratri occurs one is Chaitra Navratri and Narasimha Navratri in Vaishaka month. There are 60 years with their respective names.
This year is named Shubhakrutha. Each year a unique God is headed by a new king with his ministers to give specific results. Devotees and Sadhak can perform sadhana in Navaratri with the blessings of a well-known person.
You May Also Like: Prominent dates for the month of April 2022
Another ritual is preparing Ugadi pachadi a delicious dish consisting of six tastes, Shadruchulu. Sweet, sour, salt, spicy, bitter, and tangy represent the valuable meaning of life. It is holy and easy to prepare recipes.
Take a new earthen pot wash it thoroughly keeps it aside. Soak new tamarind in cold water for an hour. Cut mangoes into small pieces either peel them or not. Get a few fresh neem flowers, a new piece of jaggery, a pinch of Hing (Asafoetida), salt to taste. Take Pulp of Tamarind and pour it into a new pot, add water for a good consistency, add mango pieces, jaggery, salt.
Hing and lastly rub neem flowers in palm add it to water. Some may add banana or sugarcane pieces according to their taste. Now offer to God, first eat this chutney and then eat your traditional food.
New years in India
- Ugadi is celebrated in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, and Gudi Padwa in Maharastra on 2/4/22. It is the national festival of India with a public holiday.
- Vishu a Malayali new year in Kerala celebrated on 15/4/22.
- Baisakhi is a Sikh New Year in Punjab on 14/4/22.
- Pohela Boishakh is a Bengali new year in West Bengal on 15/4/22.
- Aakhar Bichhor or Jude Sheetal or Jur Sital a Maithili New year in Bihar. Jharkhand on 14/4/2023.
- Bohag Bihu in the North Eastern States of Assam for three days from 14/4/22 to 16/4/22.
- Deepavali next day Gujarati new year on 26/10/22.