Author – Padmaja Vangala
Sri Ganeshaya Namaha
Sri Gurubhoy Namaha
Sri Lakshmi Nrusimha Parabrahmane Namaha
Skanda Puran and Padma Puran explain the importance of Hindu month and tithi. Panchang is based on five elements namely Var (day), Tithi, Nakshatra, Yog, and Karan. Before going into details of Panchang there are other relevant elements to prepare Hindu Calendar. Panchang is a Hindu Calendar used by Astrologers to calculate all events.
1. Primarily there are 60 years in Hindu Calendar. Each year is ruled by one Lord. There are 12 Lord’s for 60 years.
2. According to the Hindu calendar there are 13 months in a year divided among 12 months of the Gregorian Calendar. Purushotham” Month/Adhika Maas/Mala Maas is an extra month i.e.14th month occurs every 32.5 months to align Solar and lunar months.
3. Hindu months are calculated based on the transit of Sun (Souramaas) and Moon(Chandramass).
Souramass is from Purnima to Purnima. Chandramass is from Amavasya to Amavasya. The name of the month resembles the tithi of Full Moon day (Purnima).
4. When Sunrises from North East it is Uttarayan and from South East, it is called Dakishinayan. When Sun transit from one rasi to another rasi is called Sankranti. There are twelve Sankranti in a year. Makar, khumb, Meena, Mesh, Vrushab, Mithun Sankranti occurs in Uttharayan. Karka, Simha, Kanya, Tula, Vrishika, Dhanu Sankranti occurs in Dakishinayan.
5. There are six ruthu (seasons) divided into twelve months. One season for two months.
6. The INDIAN TIME is based on Ujjain Kalagyan. Ujjain is navel Point of earth. Even today it is relevant as Greenwich time. After considering the above points Panchang is prepared with five elements.
There are seven days a week. Each day is ruled by Its Lord. Sunday_Surya, Monday_Chandra, Shiv, Tuesday _ Mangal, Hanuman, Wednesday _ Mercury, Ganesh Thursday _ Jupiter, Guru, Friday_Venus, mata, and Saturday_Saturn, _Bhairav.
There are 14 tithis, the 15th is Purnima and the 30th tithi is Amavasya. It starts from Pratipada (Padyami), Vidiya, Tritiya Chaturthi, Panchami, Shasti, Sapthami, Asthami, Navami, Dasami, Ekadashi, Dwadasi, Trayodasi, Chaturdasi, and Purnima called as Shukla Paksha. Pratipada (Padyami), Vidiya, Tritiya Chaturthi, Panchami, Shasti, Sapthami, Asthami, Navami, Dasami, Ekadashi, Dwadasi, Trayodasi, Chaturdasi, and Amavasya called as Krishna Paksha. Each tithi is ruled by its Lord.
There are 27 Nakshatra (stars)and they are daughters of Daksha Prajapati and they are married to Moon. Therefore Moon completes its constellation within 27 days. Each Nakshatra is sub_divided into four Padas(quarters)
in total 108 padas. All these refer to the 12 zodiac signs. There are three stars and nine padas in each Zodiac sign. Stars and Zodiac Signs are ruled by Navagrah. Birth Chart is prepared based on the position of Stars, day, time, tithi, and Zodiac sign. Each star is ruled by Navagrah.
Yoga is formed with the combination of day, tithi, and Nakshatra. There are 27 Yogas for 30 tithis. In General to perform any ceremony auspicious yoga is required. Siddhi, Indra, and Vajra yoga are always auspicious. Vyatapata, Ganda and Atiganda yog are unauspicious.Yoga is ruled by its Lord.
Karan is half part of Tithi. There are only eleven Karan divided among 27 stars. One tithi is shared by two Karan and ruled by its Lord.
Global cycle of Panchang
The Hindu Panchang is no paperwork, it is visible in all forms. Vedic Astrology and Panchang are related to each other It has to study together. Similarly, Vruksha Shastra (study of trees) is also related to Panchang and Astrology. “VRUKSHO RAKSHATHI RAKSHITHAHA” means If Man protects trees, Trees protect Man.
It is important to note each star is related to the Holy tree and such tree is the abode of God. Since the Vedic Era plantation of trees is relevant. During the churning of ksheera Samudra a holy tree Kalpavriksha evolution which fulfills all desire. An Indian emperor Ashoka during his reign planted trees and he became famous Ashoka the Great. It is a belief if a tree is planted and groomed such tree protects from evil effects.
An Indian Scientist Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose proved that plants have a human life cycle. It is also mentioned in Rigveda and Bhagavat Puran, an Indian Vedic Rushi in his childhood brought up by Peepal tree and named him as “PIPALADA”. Subsequently, he became a famous sage and established the PIPALAD School of Thought. He wrote Prashana Upanishad. To overcome the effect of Lord Shani, offer water to Peepal Tree by memorizing PIPALADA Rushi.
Holy trees are the abode of God and Goddess. Ganesh is offered with grass, Lord Vishnu is worshipped with Basil leaves(Tulsi), Lord Shiva is offered with Bilva leaves(Bhel), Lord Krishna underneath Kadamba Tree and he gifted Parijatha tree
from Indra look to his wife Satyabhama. Lord Dattatreya performs Tapasya under the Fig tree. Banyan Tree is Worshipped by Sati Savitri for prosperity and healthy marital relation.
Today it is famous as Vata Purnima or Vata Savitri Vrat. Lord Hanuman is worshipped with Edible Paan. Matha Parvathi performed Tapasya under Bilva Tree. Sita Matha was protected by Ashoka tree during her stay in the Lanka kingdom. Shiridi Saibaba is the abode of the Neem tree.
Ayurveda is an offshoot of Rigveda. The entire Ayurveda is based on Vruksha Shastra. Herbs taken from trees are used to prepare Ayurvedic medicine. Lord Vishnu in the form of Dhanvantari brought Amrutha Kalash with herbs from Ksheera Samudra. He is the God of Ayurveda. He is the father of Indian Ayurvedic Medicine.
Astronomy is another subject related to Panchang. It specifies the Planetary Position and decides the duration of day and night The occurrence of Solar and Lunar Eclipse is ascertained. Rainbow, milky way, Rushi Mandal are visible. Many Indian Astronomers reached the planet and reported its structure. In Vedic Era Druva, Satyam is stated. A small boy blessed by Sage Narada performed Tapasya and became a star Known as Dhruv. It is a visible bright star in Sky.
Kumbha Mela(pushkaralu) occurs once a year to one river when Jupiter enters into one Zodiac sign. Twelve rivers are ruled by Twelve Zodiac signs for Mela and calculated by Astrologer.
Precious stones are related to Panchang. Navagraha rules Nine precious stones, 27 stars, and 12 Zodiac signs.
The Twelve Zodiac signs relate to Pancha Tattva. It is ruled by its Lord.
The Global cycle Earth, water, Air, Agni and Sky, Trees, Flowers, Fruits, Animals, and birds relate to Hindu Panchang.